When I create a graph under View > Graphs, or a profile under View > Profiles, this seems to only show the initial conditions (steady state). Where can I view detailed graphical results of the transient simulation?
The transient results are viewed in the Transient Results Viewer, located under the Analysis menu. The amount of results included in here is determined by the report period, report points and "generate animation data" settings, under Analysis > Calculation Options > Transient calculation option
The Transient Results Viewer displays transient results in graph form and also can animate hydraulic grade in a profile.
The "Paths (Profiles)" pulldown at the top allows you to select a profile (defined in the main user interface under View > Profiles) and then either plot or animate it. The "plot" will provide the minimum/maximum transient envelope. The "animate" button will allow you to see the hydraulic grade profile as it changes over time. This is useful to understand how certain transient inducing events affect the system as a whole. If the animate button is grayed out, make sure "generate animate data" is set to "true", in your transient calculation options. To reduce the amount of profiles available, go to View > Profiles, right click on the ones you'd like to omit from the transient results viewer and deselect "transient report path".
The "Time Histories" pulldown at the bottom of the Transient Results Viewer displays end points that are available to graph. The amount of endpoints listed are determined by the "report points" option in the transient calculation options. Note that transient simulation results are available at the ends of the pipes where they meet a node element. For example, the upstream side of a pipe or the downstream side of a pump. For time histories, you can plot the head, pressure, flow, air/vapor volume and force (if you've chosen to compute transient force.)