What equation does HAMMER use to calculate Wave Speed in the Wave Speed Calculator Tool?
HAMMER uses the equation developed by Korteweg. See page 586 of Advanced Water Distribution Modeling and Management.
a = Wave speed (ft/s, m/s)Ev = Bulk modulus of Elasticity (lbf/ft^2, Pa)p = liquid density (slugs/ft^3, kg/m^3)D = Diameter (in, mm)e = wall thickness (in, mm)E = Young's Modulus (lbf/ft^2 / Pa)ψ = pipeline support factor
Advanced Water Distribution Modeling and Management.