What equation does HAMMER use to calculate Wave Speed in the Wave Speed Calculator Tool?
HAMMER uses the following equation developed by Korteweg. This is generally considered valid for thin-walled pipelines (D/e > 40) so if your pipe is not thin-walled (for example HDPE pipes may be too thick) or if you do not want to use the Korteweg equation, use another method such as ModelBuilder import as described here: Entering Pipe Wave Speed for a Transient Simulation
For more information, see page 586 of Advanced Water Distribution Modeling and Management.
a = Wave speed (ft/s, m/s)Ev = Bulk modulus of Elasticity (lbf/ft^2, Pa)p = liquid density (slugs/ft^3, kg/m^3)D = Diameter (in, mm)e = wall thickness (in, mm)E = Young's Modulus (lbf/ft^2 / Pa)ψ = pipeline support factor (see below)
Advanced Water Distribution Modeling and Management.