Partially Filled Liquid Pipelines or Hot Sun Exposed Pipes
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The Load/Thermal Bowing command enables the user to calculate thermal bowing separately or included with all or one thermal load case which can cause severe stresses on the piping. Thermal bowing typically occurs when transporting fluid on a partially filled pipe but can also occur in exposed pipes in hot climates where one side of the pipe is exposed to the sun and the other side is in the shade. In this case, the top and bottom of the pipe section can experience a significant temperature differential. This temperature differential causes pipe thermal strains which produce pipe curvature.
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