You first need to know the pattern or arrangement of the loading which will eventually cause the displacement you wish to see. This is because, there can be millions of loading arrangements which cause that amount of displacement at that node, so one needs to have an idea of which of those patterns is the one that one wants. By pattern, we are talking of details like, is the load going to consist of concentrated forces at nodes, or distributed and trapezoidal loads on members, or pressures on plates, etc. For example, any of these loads will cause a certain amount of displacement at a node along a certain direction. So, a unit load analysis would be the best approach for solving this kind of a problem. That means, all the components of the loading pattern would be represented by unit loads. Let us say that by applying a member load of 100 pounds/ft, you get 0.4 inches of displacement along global X at node 43. So, if the final desired displacement at node 43 along X is say, 1.2 inches, the applied load should be simply (1.2/0.4)*100 = 300 pounds/ft.
EITHER NA OR NV FACTOR HAS NOT BEEN SPECIFIED
WHILE SEISMIC ZONE HAS BEEN SPECIFIED AS 4.
This is due to the fact that, for your model, STAAD looks at the data under the DEFINE UBC LOAD command and concludes that you intend to analyse the structure per the UBC 1997 code. It then checks whether all the required parameters have been specified for that code, and detects that NA and NV are missing. You perhaps have an input similar to the one below :DEFINE UBC LOADZONE 0.4 I 1 RWX 12 RWZ 12 STYP 1.2 PX 0.2626 PZ 0.2626For Zone 4, Na and Nv are two of the fundamental parameters necessary to calculate the base shear. If you look at Tables 16-Q and 16-R on pages 2-34 & 2-35 of the UBC 1997 code, you will find that for Zone 4, the coefficients Ca and Cv are dependent on Na and Nv. So, specify the NA and NV parameters, so that the commands look similar to the one below :DEFINE UBC LOADZONE 0.4 I 1 RWX 12 RWZ 12 STYP 1.2 NA 1.6 NV 1.6 PX 0.2626 PZ 0.2626
You can do this if you have STAAD.Pro version 2002 or later. An example of this is shown below.LOADING 1 SELFWEIGHT Y -1.0 LOAD 2REPEAT LOAD1 1.0JOINT LOAD4 5 FY -15. ; 11 FY -35.LOAD 3REPEAT LOAD2 1.0MEMB LOAD 8 TO 13 UNI Y -0.9 ; 6 UNI GY -1.2LOAD 4SELFWEIGHT Y -1.0 JOINT LOAD4 5 FY -15. ; 11 FY -35.MEMB LOAD 8 TO 13 UNI Y -0.9 ; 6 UNI GY -1.2PERF ANALYLOAD LIST 3 4PRINT *** RESFINISHIn the above example, load case 3 repeats load case 2, which in turn repeats load case 1.
There is absolutely no need for you to take the lateral load data from the output of the first file, and insert it as input into the second file. In STAAD, once the lateral loads due to UBC or IBC are generated, they are automatically available for combining with gravity loads, or any other loads for that matter. Consequently, there are 2 ways in which this combination can be achieved, and each is demonstrated below :Method 1 :Generate the lateral load in one load case. Specify the gravity load in another load case. Then, combine the two in a load combination case.LOAD 1 - GENERATE LATERAL LOADS DUE TO UBC ALONG XUBC X 1.0LOAD 2 - SPECIFY GRAVITY LOADSSELFWEIGHT Y -1.0MEMBER LOAD1 TO 25 UNI GY -1.2JOINT LOAD10 39 FY -10.0LOAD COMBINATION 3 - COMBINE THE LATERAL AND GRAVITY LOADS IN ONE CASE1 1.0 2 1.0
Method 2 :Create a single load case in which the lateral forces are generated, and gravity loads are specified.LOAD 1 - LATERAL LOADS + GRAVITY LOADSUBC X 1.0SELFWEIGHT Y -1.0MEMBER LOAD1 TO 25 UNI GY -1.2JOINT LOAD10 39 FY -10.0
When the UBC committee came up with the recommendations for analysing structures subjected to earthquakes, the type of structures they had in mind were conventional style buildings where the base of the model, namely, the points where the supports are located is at the lowest elevation with respect to the rest of the model.
If you look at the UBC procedure, it involves computation of the base shear, which then has to be distributed over the height of the building, so that one can then calculate the inter-story shears. A certain amount of the weight gets lumped at the highest point of the building, and the rest gets distributed along the height. In other words, the principle is that a mass at any height of the building is subjected to an acceleration and the force caused by the acceleration is represented by a concentrated force where the mass is located. The summation of all such forces at a given floor cause the columns beneath that floor to be subjected to a shear force.
When you talk of a model like a pipe which is defined as line members attached to several collinear nodes, all of which are at the same elevation, the UBC rules become impossible to apply. The fact is, to analyse your structure for seismic effects, you do not even need the elaborate procedure of the UBC code. You can take the selfweight, and any imposed loads on the pipe, and apply them along a horizontal direction like X or Z with a factor, and you will get what is normally expected in a seismic analysis.
So, you just have to have
LOAD 2SELF X n
where n is a number like 1.5, which represents that there is a net force of 1.5 times the weight of the structure acting along the X direction due to an earthquake. For better handling of the distributed loads, you might want to consider defining several nodes along the length of the pipe, between supports.
STAAD's FLOOR LOAD option is ideally suited for such cases. This is a facility where you specify the load as a pressure, and the program converts the pressure to individual beam loads. Thus, the input required from the user is very simple - load intensity in the form of pressure, and the region of the structure in terms of X, Y and Z coordinates in space, of the area over which the pressure acts.In the process of converting the pressure to beam loads, STAAD will consider the empty space between criss-crossing beams (in plan view) to be panels, similar to the squares of a chess board. The load on each panel is then tranferred to beams surrounding the panel, using a triangular or trapezoidal load distribution method. Additional information on this facility is available in example problem 15 in the examples manual, and section 5.32.4 in the STAAD.Pro Technical Reference manual.
When modelling a grid system made up of horziontal beams and the slabs which span between the beams, we have found that there are 2 approaches that users take :
1) They model the beams only, and do not include the slabs in the model. However, they take into account the large inplane stiffness of the slab by using the master-slave relationship to tie together the nodes of the deck so that a rigid diaphragm effect is simulated for the horizontal plane at the slab level.
2) They model the slabs along with the beams. The slabs are modelled using plate elements.
The question that arises is, how does one account for the distributed loading (load per area of floor) which is present on top of the slab?
If you model the structure using method (1), the load can be assumed to be transferred directly on to the beams. The slab-beam grillage is assumed to be made up of a number of panels, similar to the squares of a chess board. The load on each panel is then tranferred to beams surrounding the panel, using a triangular or trapezoidal load distribution method. You can do this in STAAD by defining the load intensity in the FLOOR LOAD command. In other words, the pressure load on the slabs (which are not included in the model) are converted to individual beam loads by utilizing the FLOOR LOAD facility.
In method (2), the fact that the slab is part of the model makes it very easy to handle the load. The load can be applied on individual elements using the ELEMENT LOAD facility. The connectivity between the beams and elements ensures that the load will flow from the plates to the beams through the columns to the supports.
The difference lies in the way STAAD goes about calculating the results - joint displacements, member forces and support reactions. For a load combination case, STAAD simply ALGEBRAICALLY COMBINES THE RESULTS of the component cases after factoring them. In other words, for example, in order to obtain the results of load 10, it has no need to know what exactly is it that constitutes load cases 3, 4 and 5. It just needs to know what the results of those cases are. Thus, the structure is NOT actually analysed for a combination load case. With a REPEAT LOAD case however, the procedure followed is that which occurs for any other primary load case. A load vector {P} is first created, and later, that load vector gets pre-multiplied by the inverted stiffness matrix.
There are 2 segments of the tank which have to be individually considered for application of the load.
The vertical walls------------------
The material in the tank, especially if it is a fluid, will exert a lateral pressure on the vertical walls of the tank. This pressure load can be applied on the tank using the ELEMENT PRESSURE load facility. You can use one of 2 options to do this.
a) A uniform pressure. If you take any individual element on the wall, if you know the pressure intensity at the top edge, and the pressure intensity at the bottom edge, the average of these 2 intensities can be applied as a constant pressure on the entire surface of the element, as in the following example :
45 PRESSURE -3.5
Since the load is along the local Z axis of the element, you do not have to specify the axis name in the above command since local Z is the default for the axis. The load value must be accompanied by the proper sign (positive or negative) which accounts for whether the load acts along or opposite to the direction of the local Z axis.
b) A trapezoidally varying pressure.
In case (a) above, we decided to take the average of the pressures at the top and bottom edges, and thus obtain a uniform pressure. However, this is not absolutely necessary. The load can be applied as a trapezoidal load, in which case, the TRAP option is used and the intensities at the top and bottom edges must be specified. An example of that is
45 PRESSURE TRAP Y -4.5 -2.5
In this example, it is assumed that the local Y axis of element 45 is along the vertical direction, and thus the trapezoidal variation is along the local Y. The load itself acts perpendicular to the surface of the element, and hence along local Z. If local Y is in the same sense as global Y, -4.5 indicates the intensity at the lower edge, and -2.5 indicates the intensity at the upper edge.
If the vertical wall has many divisions along the vertical direction, there will be several "horizontal rings" of elements. Every element contained in a ring has the same intensity at its top and bottom edge. That means, the top & bottom intensity for each of those rings will have to be manually calculated. There is a facility in the STAAD.Pro GUI to simplify this task. From the top of the screen, select Commands - Loading - Load Commands - Element - Hydrostatic Trapezoidal, and provide the intensities at the top and bottom edges of the vertical wall. The program will use the linear interpolation method to find the intensity at each intermediate division, and then create the individual element TRAPEZOIDAL loads.
The sloping walls-----------------
The load on the elements which make up these walls is derived from the weight of the column of material directly above these elements, and acts along the global vertical downward direction. Since the element TRAP load facility that is available in STAAD allows a load to be applied only along the local Z axis, and since local Z is not parallel to any of the global directions, the TRAP load option cannot be used here. Hence, one will have to apply these as uniform pressure loads, the value of which has to be calculated for each sloping element as the average of the intensities at the 4 nodes of that element. There is no generation facility currently available in the program to automate this task.
Moving load on curved beams is not supported by the DEFINE MOVING LOAD command in STAAD.Pro. The STAAD moving load generator assumes:1)All loads are acting in the negative global vertical (Y or Z) direction. The user is advised to set up the structure model accordingly.2)Resultant direction of movement is determined from the X, Y and Z increments of movements as provided by the user.
However, STAAD.beava, an automated bridge load generator, can handle moving loads for curved or custom-defined bridge decks with beams and plates. It also generates a 3D influence surface based on displacements, support reactions, beam forces or plate stresses for any point on the bridge. The critical loading patterns and critical vehicle position will be identified as well. STAAD.beava is an integrated module in the STAAD.Pro environment.
The UBC 1997 code defines Rw as a Numerical Coefficient representative of the inherent overstrength and global ductility capacity of lateral-force resisting systems.
It is to be used in the equation for computing base shear. Its values are dependent on the type of lateral-force resisting system in the building, such as whether the system is a Light-framed wall with shear panels or Shear wall made of concrete or a special moment resisting frame, etc.
Values of Rw are listed in Tables 16-N and 16-P of the UBC 1994 and 1997 codes.
The DEFINE WIND LOAD command may be used to define the parameters for automatic generation of wind loads on the structure. The user needs to define the intensity and corresponding heights along with the exposure factors. If the exposure factor is not defined, the program takes the default value as 1.0.
A value of 1.0 means that the wind force may be applied on the full influence area associated with the joints if they are also exposed to the wind load direction.All loads and heights are in the current unit system. In the list of intensities, the first value of intensity (p1) acts from the ground level up to the first height. The second intensity (p2) acts in the global vertical direction between the first two heights (h1 and h2) and so on. The program assumes that the ground level has the lowest global vertical coordinate of any joint entered for the structure.
The exposure factor (e) is the fraction of the influence area associated with the joint(s) on which the load may act if it is also exposed to the wind load. Total load on a particular joint is calculated as follows.
JOINT LOAD = (Exposure Factor) x (Influence Area) x (Wind Intensity).
Exposure factor (User specified) = (Fraction of Influence Area) x (influence width for joint).
In STAAD.Pro 2002, the built-in wind load generation facility has been enhanced to allow the user to specify the actual panels of the building which are exposed to the wind. This user-level control will now allow the user to obtain a more accurate distribution of wind forces, especially when the exposed surface of the building lies in several vertical zones, each reset from the one below or the one above, in terms of the direction of wind force. Further, the basic algorithm for detecting the shape of the panels and the amount of load which should be calculated for the panel corners too has undergone significant improvements. The parameters for definition of the wind load types are described in Section 5.31.3 of the STAAD.PRO Technical Reference Manual. The relevant extracts from Section 5.32.12 of the STAAD.Pro Technical Reference Manual, where the method for applying wind loading in the form of a data in load cases has been explained, is provided below. Note that areas bounded by beam members (and ground), and exposed to the wind, are used to define loaded areas (plates and solids are ignored). The loads generated are applied only at the joints at vertices of the bounded areas. For example, in the following set of commands:
DEFINE WIND LOADTYPE 1INTENSITY 0.1 0.12 HEIGHT 100 200EXP 0.6 JOI 1 TO 25 BY 7 29 TO 37 BY 4 22 23TYPE 2INT 0.1 0.12 HEIGHT 100 900EXP 0.3 YR 0 500LOAD 1SELF Y -1.0LOAD 2WIND LOAD Z 1.2 TYPE 2 ZR 10 11LOAD 3WIND LOAD X TYPE 1 XR 7 8
A minus sign indicates that suction occurs on the other side of the selected structure. If all of the members are selected and X (or Z) is used and the factor is positive, then the exposed surfaces facing in the -x (or -z) direction will be loaded in the positive x (or z) direction (normal wind in positive direction). If X and a negative factor is used, then the exposed surfaces facing in the +x direction will be loaded in the negative x direction (normal wind in negative direction). [If -X is entered and a negative factor, then the exposed surfaces facing in the -x direction will be loaded in the negative x direction (suction). If -X is entered and a positive factor, then the exposed surfaces facing in the +x direction will be loaded in the positive x direction (suction).] A member list or a range of coordinate values (in global system) may be used. All members which have both end coordinates within the range are assumed to be candidates for defining a surface which may be loaded if the surface is exposed to the wind. The loading will be in the form of joint loads (not member loads). 1, 2 or 3 ranges can be entered to form a "layer", "tube" or "box" for selecting members in the combined ranges. Use ranges to speed up the calculations on larger models.
It is advisable not to use the SET Z UP command in a model with wind load. A closed surface is generated by the program based on the members in the ranges above and their end joints. The area within this closed surface is determined and the share of this area (influence area) for each node in the list is then calculated. The individual bounded areas must be planar surfaces, to a close tolerance, or they will not be loaded. Hence, one should make sure that the members/joints that are exposed to the wind make up a closed surface (ground may form an edge of the closed surface). Without a proper closed surface, the area calculated for the region may be indeterminate and the joint force values may be erroneous. Consequently, the number of exposed joints should be at least 3.
Based on the data you provide under the DEFINE MOVING LOAD command, each truck is treated as a set of axles. If the WIDTH option is NOT specified, each axle is assumed to be comprised of 1 tire. If the WIDTH option is specified, each axle is assumed to be comprised of 2 tires.
The program looks at each tire independently. For any given tire, it looks for one longitudinal beam to the left of the tire, and another longitudinal beam to the right of the tire. Then it distributes the tire weight on those 2 beams as though the tire is located on a simply supported cross beam that spans the two longitudinal members on either side.
Thus, even if a lane spans across 3 longitudinal beams or for that matter several beams, the above approach ensures that the tire weights get properly applied on the correct set of beams as concentrated member loads.
You can get a listing of these concentrated member loads by using the command:PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT LOAD DATA
Yes. Please use the PRINT LOAD DATA option with your PERFORM ANALYSIS command and you will get the information in your output file.
If a wheel falls inside a panel composed of beams on either side of the wheel running parallel to the direction of movement of the vehicle, the load is distributed on the 2 beams as simply supported reactions. Hence, if the wheel load is 10 kips, and if the distance from the wheel to the beam on the left is 7 ft, and the distance to the beam on the right is 3 ft, the beam on the left gets a 3 kip load, and the beam on the right gets a 7 kip load.
If a transverse load such as a uniform distributed load or a concentrated force is applied on a truss member, STAAD converts it to the equivalent concentrated shears at the 2 ends of the member. The member end force output will show them as shears on the member under the output terms SHEAR-Y or SHEAR-Z depending on the local axis direction the load is applied in.
However, if you determine the equivalent end shears and apply them as joint loads instead, and not as a member load, the truss members at that node will not experience any shear force due to that load.
This would require that the support reactions for all generated load cases be produced in a report form sorted in a descending order based upon the specific support reaction criteria we are interested in, such as the FY force, or the MZ moment.
To get this report, first run the analysis. Go to the Post processing mode. Select the support node(s) at which you want the information you are seeking. From the top of the screen, select Report | Support Reactions. In the dialog box that comes up, select the degree of freedom (FY, MZ, etc.) which should be used as the criteria for sorting. Set the sorting order (high to low or low to high). From the loading tab, select the load cases that you want considered. Click on OK. A report of the results will be displayed in tabular form.
When analysing a structure for UBC loads, there 2 stages in the input. The first stage is the one where one defines data such as the various parameters (zone factor, importance factor, soil structure interaction factor, etc.) as well as the weights. In terms of the STAAD command language, it is initiated using the DEFINE UBC LOAD command, and an example for this may be found in Example 14 of the STAAD.Pro Examples manual.
Graphically, one may assign the data in the following manner.
Select the beam or beams you want to assign the distributed weights to. Next, from the top of the screen, select Commands | Loading | Define Load | Seismic Load. In the Parameters tab, select the type, and enter the relevantvalues for the parameters. Press the "Save" button. A new tab called "Weights" should come up. Press the "Member Weight" button. For the loading type, choose UNI, enter the distributed weight value, distances to where the load starts and the load ends, and press "OK". Press the "Assign" button to actually assign them to the selected members. Finally, press the "Close" button.
In the block of commands which fall under the DEFINE UBC LOAD heading or any of the other ones like AIJ ,1893, etc., the weight data which goes into the calculation of the total seismic weight consists of :
SELFWEIGHT
JOINT WEIGHT
MEMBER WEIGHT
FLOOR WEIGHT
...
If at any of the joints of the structure, there are any weights which you want included in the total seismic weight calculation, you specify them using the JOINT WEIGHT option. These loads could be dead loads, imposed loads or live loads. Eventually these all these weights mentioned above are added together to arrive at the total seismic weight (W) which is then multiplied by the coefficient ( Cs or equivalent which is calculated by the software ) to arrive at the base shear value.
You should use the option called ADD LOAD along with the LOAD GENERATION command.
Shown below is an example:
DEFINE MOVING LOADTYPE 1 LOAD 20. 20. 10. DISTANCE 10. 5. WIDTH 10.LOAD 1 STATIC LOADSELF Y -1.0
* GENERATE MOVING LOADS AND ADD THE SELFWEIGHT* LOAD TO EACH GENERATED LOAD CASE
LOAD GENERATION 10 ADD LOAD 1TYPE 1 7.5 0. 0. ZI 10.PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT LOAD DATA
You have to know three temperatures : 1) the stress-free temperature, which is the temperature that the structure was at when it was constructed or installed. Call it A. 2) The temperature of the top fiber (the fiber that is farthest along the positive direction of the local Z axis of elements and local Y axis for beam). Call it B. 3) The temperature of the bottom fiber (the fiber that is farthest along the negative direction of the local Z axis of element and local Y axis for beam). Call it C. When you specify the temperature load, the command ismember-list TEMPERATURE f1 f2where f1 = (B+C)/2 - A f2 = B-C f1 is the temperature that causes axial elongation / shrinkage along the longitudinal axis (local X of the member, and, local X and Y axes for the plate element). f2 is the temperature responsible for inducing bending in the member and element. Also, refer to article 5.32.6 of the Technical Reference Manual of Staad.pro
STAAD.Pro Seismic Load Generation should not be used in this case. If the structures are independent of each other, you should have 3 separate models and do seismic load generation on each model separately.
No you do not need to. Once the seismic weight is defined ( either through reference load or through the various seismic weight definition options ) as part of the seismic load definition, the software is able to figure out the total seismic weight. You do not need to redefine. Doing so would apply these as additional loads to the ones already defined.
As per section 12.4.2 of ASCE 7-10,
E = E_{h} + E_{v }
and
E = E_{h} – E_{v}
where
E_{h} = ρ * Q_{E} (equation 12.4-3 of ASCE 7-10) is the Horizontal seismic load effect
E_{v} = 0.2 * S_{DS} * D is the vertical seismic load effect described in equation 12.4-4
STAAD calculates only the Q_{E} term of the horizontal component E_{h}. The user has to manually multiply Q_{E} by ρ to obtain E_{h}. There is no provision in STAAD to input ρ, which is defined in section 12.3.4.2 as a redundancy factor for Seismic Design categories D through F.
STAAD does not calculate the vertical component E_{v}. However, the user can indirectly get the program to perform this calculation by applying all the loads that come under the category of “D” (Dead Load) along the global Y direction with a factor of 0.2 * S_{DS}. For example, if S_{DS} is 0.18, and the only load item that constitutes dead load is the selfweight, then, E_{v} can be obtained by specifying the following load case
SELFWEIGHT Y 0.036
Most likely you have LOAD COMBINATIONS already defined as part of the file and there is not enough gap in numbering between the last primary load case and the load combination to accomodate the number of moving load generations that has been asked for. For example if you have
LOAD 1 DEAD LOADSELF Y -1.0*LOAD 2 LIVE LOADMEMBER LOAD100 TO 150 UNI GY -1*LOAD COMB 3 DEAD + LIVE1 1.0 2 1.0
then if you try to generate 30 moving load cases as shown next
LOAD GENERATION 30 TYPE 10 12 1 0 ZINC 1
Here are a couple of options to handle this scenario.
Change the LOAD COMBINATION number to anything higher than 32 to accomodate 30 generations after load case 2. Remember these generations are all treated as primary load cases by STAAD and so has to come shead of the combinations.
Alternately you may change the LOAD COMBINATION to REPEAT LOAD as shown next
LOAD 3 DEAD + LIVEREPEAT LOAD1 1.0 2 1.0
REPEAT LOADs are considered as primary load case by STAAD.Pro and hence you would be able to generate the moving load generations after that without any problem.
The type for the envelopes are supposed to indicate what the envelope ( which is essentially a cluster of loads ) is meant to be used for. For example if the type is specified as Serviceability it would be used for serviceability checks like deflection check. STRENGTH envelope means the component loads would be used for member strength check. However as of now, all design codes in STAAD.Pro are not equipped to honor the envelope types. The latestAISC 360 10 code check is able to do appropriate code checking based on envelope specifications SERVICEABILITY and STRENGTH. As far as the other envelope types are concerned, COLUMN was developed based on requirement obtained from a particular company who wanted to tag all the load cases for column design separately and type Connection was defined to tag all load cases to be used for connection design.
Often one may need to apply wind loading on a specific set of members in a model. For example one may have cross braces in a vertical plane and may have wind load acting normal to the plane of these braces, which one may not want the braces to take. In such situations, one may define a group consisting of members which are expected to take the wind load and apply thewind loading on these groups as shown next. As of now the data has to be entered using the editor as there are no options in the GUI for doing this
In the above example, wind loading type 2 and 4 has been applied on two separate member groups _X_AT_WEST and _X_AT_EAST respectively.
Although the error message says UBC but it is a generic message that is applicable to seismic load generations as per all other codes as well, including IBC.
The reason for getting the error is that, no seismic weight has been specified as part of the seismic definition and hence Staad is unable to calculate the Base Shear ( V = Cs x W ). As part of the seismic definition you need to specify various seismic parameters like Ss, S1, TL, I , SITE CLASS etc which are used to compute the coefficient Cs. In addition you need to define the seismic weights which will be used by the software to calculate the W term in the base shear equation. One can specify seismic weights in the form of selfweight , member weight , joint weight , element weight etc for. A sample input is provided below
DEFINE IBC 2006SS 2.16 S1 0.80585 I 1 RX 3 RZ 4 SCLASS 4 TL 12SELFWEIGHT 1JOINT WEIGHT50 51 54 55 WEIGHT 2MEMBER WEIGHT125 TO 127 UNI 1
An example problem EXAMP14.std is included with the software to explain the seismic load generation.
Your floor group consists of multiple panels which are not lying on the same plane. This necessarily needs to be lying on a single plane.
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