RAM Structural System CONNECT Edition Version 17.03 SES Release Notes
Release Date: January 27, 2022
This document contains important information regarding changes to the RAM Structural System. It is important that all users are aware of these changes. Please distribute these Release Notes and make them available to all users of the RAM Structural System.
If you have enabled the CONNECTION Client, you will automatically be notified of the newest version and will be able to update through that service by simply selecting the update command. Otherwise, this version can be found on the Bentley Software Fulfilment web page by logging into CONNECT Center and selecting the Software Downloads icon. Search for “RAM Structural System” and select the latest version.
This version automatically converts databases created in previous versions to the new database format. Note that a backup file is created automatically when a database is converted; the name of the database is the same, with “Orig” and the version number appended to the name. The file has an extension of “.zip” and is located in the same directory as the original database.
The previous steel tables and load combination templates supplied with the program will be replaced with new tables and templates of the same name. If you have customized any Master or Design tables or load combination templates supplied with the program without changing the file names, those file names should be renamed from the original RAM table names prior to installation to prevent your changes from being lost.
Except for minor corrections, the Tutorial Manual has not been updated but is still valid. The appearance of some parts of the program in this version may differ from that shown in the Tutorial.
Bentley CONNECT and Product Licensing FAQ:
Appendix A at the end of these Notes contains important information on the features and capabilities provided to you through Bentley CONNECT, and for important information on configuring Bentley CONNECT Licensing. These were first implemented in RAM Structural System v16.00. If you have not already done so, you are urged to configure your licensing thresholds so that warnings are given if you are attempting to launch the program that would result in an overuse.
Appendix B at the end of these Notes contains a description of features available in the RAM Structural System to help prevent inadvertent use of unlicensed modules. Refer to that document for more information. Note that with CONNECT Licensing, warning messages are given in the event there is no license available, so it generally isn’t necessary now to block modules using that feature. Note: At some point in the future this feature will be removed since it is redundant. To provide protection against inadvertent overuse of licenses, license threshold limits should be set as explained in Appendix A.
Beginning with RAM Structural System V17.00 the licensing was changed; the licenses on the individual modules (e.g., RAM Steel, RAM Concrete, RAM Frame, RAM Foundation) were consolidated into a single package, RAM Structural System. See Appendix C at the end of these Notes for more information on this license consolidation.
Security Risk Advisory:
Not applicable to this release. Every effort is made to ensure that there are no security risks in the software. There are no known security issues, no issues were addressed in this version.
New Features and Enhancements:
For details on these new features and enhancements, refer to the manual .pdf files available from the Help menu in each module or from the Manuals folder on your hard drive.
ISM and iTwin Analytical Synchronizer
The ISM features have been renamed, reconfigured and moved out of the File menu and are now included under the Bentley Cloud Services menu: Bentley Cloud Services – iTwin Services. When this command is invoked, the panel on the right side of the RAM Manager screen will display the Synchronize to File commands. To create a new iTwin or to update an existing iTwin, select the Push to file command (this is the same as the old File – ISM – Create ISM Repository and File – ISM – Update ISM Repository commands). To create a new RAM Structural System model or to update an existing RAM Structural System model from an iTwin, select the Pull from file command (this is the same as the old File – ISM – New From ISM Repository and File – ISM – Update From ISM Repository commands). The Structural Synchronizer is now the iTwin Analytical Synchronizer. Defaults used in creation of the iTwin model for the iTwin Analytical Synchronizer can be found in the File – iTwin Analytical Synchronizer Defaults command.
These organizational changes have been made to provide for some powerful new capabilities that will soon be made available, including the ability to Synchronize iTwin models to and from the Cloud rather than to a local drive and a Design Review that allows you to share the model in a web browser, mark up and add comments, and view key analytical and design results. Watch for the announcement of this expanded feature.
The requirements of ACI 318-19 have been implemented in the Concrete and Foundation modules. Notable changes include revised shear strength equations, requirements for higher reinforcement bar grades, changes to phi given in Table 21.2.2, and seismic design details for shear walls, among others.
ACI 318 Limit on Second-Order Effects
ACI 318-19 Section 18.104.22.168 (and ACI 318-14 Section 6.2.6) requires that, when slenderness effects cannot be neglected, the ratio of the moment including second-order effects to the moment due to first-order effects not exceed 1.4. If that occurs, the column must be resized. If either the option to Apply Magnification Factor, delta, to all columns or the option to Apply Magnification Factor, delta-s, to sway frame columns in the Analysis Criteria dialog is selected, the program now checks for this condition when designing concrete columns and, if the ratio of second-order moments to first-order moments is greater than 1.4, gives a warning that the moment magnification factor exceeds 1.4. If this warning is given, the structural framing sizes are unacceptable and must be revised. [Note: in v17.02 this warning message was sometimes erroneously given; this enhancement was a work-in-progress not intended to be visible in v17.02.]
ACI 318 Slenderness Criteria
Previously, in the Criteria – Analysis command there was an option to Consider Column Slenderness. When this option was selected the program:
This command has been modified; instead of the single Consider Column Slenderness option, now there are two separate options: Apply Magnification Factor, delta, to all columns and Apply Magnification Factor, delta-s, to sway frame columns.
When the option to Apply Magnification Factor, d, to all columns is selected, the program:
When the option to Apply Magnification Factor, ds, to sway frame columns and the frames are not braced against sidesway, the program:
IBC 2021 Load Combinations
New load combination templates have been added based on the requirements of IBC 2021. The combinations of ASCE 7-16 are mandated by IBC 2021, but IBC 2021 has some additional requirements for the factor to be applied to the snow load in allowable stress design combinations that include both snow and seismic forces. The templates provide options to generate the combinations based on either the original ASCE 7-16 requirements or as modified by IBC 2021. These new combinations are available for the Steel Standard Provisions and Steel Seismic Provisions in RAM Frame, ACI 318-19 commands in RAM Concrete and RAM Foundation, and in the soil combinations for RAM Foundation.
The Pen Colors dialog has been enhanced to allow the Background color to be specified (previously it was always black). If a Background color is selected that is the same color as other entities, a warning will be given that those entities will not be visible. Also, for Concrete and Other columns and walls, the Outline and the Fill colors can be specified separately.
Enhancements have been made to features in the Modeler:
Show Member Length in Steel Beam
The View – Show Member Lengths commands, previously only available in the Modeler, have been added to the Steel Beam module. There are options to display either the Projected lengths or the Actual lengths (which is different than Project lengths for sloping members). The lengths are displayed for beams and walls.
AISC ASD Standard Provisions Joint Checks
The ability to perform the Standard Provisions Joint Checks in RAM Frame – Steel – Standard Provisions Mode was disabled in V17.02 if the selected Code was AISC 360-05 ASD, AISC 360-10 ASD, or AISC 360-16 ASD. when it was discovered that the program was using ASD load combination forces, but was using LRFD design checks, which was unconservative. This has now been corrected, and the AISC ASD joint check capabilities are once again available.
In the Steel Beam module, for Eurocode and BS 5950 composite beam design, the Reports – Transverse Reinforcement command creates a report that lists all of the beams that require more transverse reinforcement than is indicated by the user as the typical reinforcement, listing the beam size, the number of studs if composite, the deck sheeting condition at the beam (continuous or discontinuous), and the total Asv required. This command has been enhanced; it now highlights all beams that have been included in that report so that they can easily be located. Use the View – Show Designs command to show the sizes, and then use View/Update or the Assign – Beam Size command to change beam sizes if desired. A Show Beams with Transverse Reinforcement Check Warnings button has been added to the tool bar to invoke this command. Select this button again to turn off the highlighting.
This feature is unavailable, requiring a correction. This will be fixed in the next release.
Explicit panel zone elements can be assigned to the beam-column joints in RAM Frame using the Assign – Columns – Panel Zone command. This is applicable to joints of steel, concrete, or any material members. The panel zone stiffness can be either assigned a specific value, or in the case of steel framing it can be automatically calculated (see the RAM Frame Manual for details). With HSS columns the panel zone stiffness can be calculated in the strong and weak axes. This panel zone element provides a more accurate analytical model, rather than trying to approximate the influence of the panel zone through the use of Rigid End Zones. Typically, Rigid End Zones should not be specified when panel zone elements are assigned.
Construction Sequence Assignment Display
When members have been assigned a Construction Stage for Construction Sequence Analysis, the Stage number can be displayed using the View – Members command. Previously if a member had not been assigned a Construction Stage, nothing was displayed for that member, making it hard to identify which members had not been assigned. Now “None” is displayed for those members.
Working with and at the request of the engineers at DuraFuse Frames, some enhancements have been made to the implementation of the DuraFuse moment frame connection in RAM Frame:
DXF Beam Schedule Color/Layer Options
The Concrete Beam Schedule DXF drawing options have been enhanced to include a distinct Color Number and Layer Name for Ties/Stirrups, and it makes better use of the Color and Layer options for other parts of that drawing, giving the user more control over the format of the DXF drawing.
Some program errors have been corrected for this version. Corrections made to graphics, reports, Modeler functions, program crashes, etc., that were considered minor are not listed here. The noteworthy error corrections are listed here in order to notify you that they have been corrected or to assist you in determining the impact of those errors on previous designs. These errors were generally obscure and uncommon, affecting only a very small percentage of models, or had no impact on the results. The errors, when they occurred, were generally quite obvious. However, if there is any question, it may be advisable to reanalyze previous models to determine the impact, if any. In each case the error only occurred for the precise conditions indicated. Those errors that may have resulted in un-conservative designs are shown with an asterisk. We know these errors are disruptive, we apologize for any inconvenience this may cause.
CONCRETE BEAM CROSS-SECTION: In the Concrete Beam Schedule, when the cross-section of rectangular beams was drawn, one corner was drawn in the wrong location.
Effect: Distorted drawing of the cross-section.
SHEAR WALL OUTLINE: In some cases, the shear wall outline was drawn incorrectly in the DXF output, with lines drawn to an extraneous point in a radial pattern.
Effect: Incorrect DXF output.
ELEVATION LABEL: The top-most story label was missing from the Elevation DXF.
Effect: Missing label.
FLOOR FRAMING GAP SCALE: In the floor framing DXF the gap between the beam end and the girder, and the gap between the beam end and the column, was not scaled correctly. The program was treating the specified value as if it were a model space dimension rather than a paper space dimension, which was inconsistent with other dimensions.
Effect: No visible gaps were drawn. Note: If you have made a change to your default value to account for this, you may need to change it back, otherwise the gaps will be very large.
REACTIONS ON STUB CANTILEVERS REVERSED*: When exporting the reactions on stub cantilevers using the Data Extractor, the reactions were reported backwards: the right reaction was reported in the left reaction column and vice versa.
Effect: Incorrect stub cantilever beam reactions were reported.
SAVE AS ARCHIVE: The Durafuse .dfz file was not being included when archive files were created.
Effect: DuraFuse data was lost when the file was archived with the File – Save as Archive command.
GRAVITY LOADS ON LATERAL MEMBERS REPORT: The Gravity Loads on Lateral Members report lists the gravity loads applied to lateral members. In the case of a Gravity column supported by a transfer girder that was a Frame beam, the applied gravity loads reported for the Frame columns that supported that Frame beam were initially incorrect. However, after the analysis was performed in RAM Frame, the values were corrected and the report listed the correct values.
Effect: The reported column forces may not have been correct for the case of a Gravity column supported by a Frame beam.
SLOPING MEMBER LOADS AND REACTIONS*: If a beam framed into a sloping beam and if the option in the Manager to automatically include Beam self-weight in the determination of Dead Loads had been selected, the reaction from the beam supported by the sloping beam was unnecessarily transformed (the reaction had already been transformed and didn’t need to be done again) into the sloping beam’s local axis when the beams were designed during a Design All, resulting in incorrect design Dead Load point loads on the sloping beam.
Effect: The Dead Load from reactions of sloping beams was incorrect, by the cosine of the beam slope angle, on the supporting members, including beams, columns, and foundations. The values were greater than they should have been, so the error was conservative unless the member or footing design was (or should have been) controlled by uplift. The error, when it occurred, was small unless the slope was very large. This error may have impacted gravity beam and column design, Frame analysis and design, foundations, and the reactions and point loads listed in the Data Extractor. Note that for the analysis of the Frames in RAM Frame, the Dead Loads on Frame members were corrected and the error did not occur if a Design All was performed in the Steel Beam module, in which case the analysis results in RAM Frame were correct.
ABSOLUTE DEFLECTION LIMITS WARNINGS*: Deflection limit failure warnings were not given in View/Update and during Design All if a composite beam failed a user-specified "delta" deflection limit for the precomposite Construction Dead Load deflection case, or if a noncomposite beam failed a user-specified "delta" deflection limit for the Dead Load or Live Load deflection cases.
Effect: Failures to satisfy the "L/d" deflection limits were always correctly reported, and Reports, Design Color display, and View/Update Demand/Capacity Ratio all correctly indicated when the beam failed either the "L/d" or "delta" deflection limits, but on-screen failure warnings were not displayed when the beam failed the "delta" deflection limit for the precomposite Construction Dead Load deflection case for composite beams, or for the Dead Load or Live Load deflection cases for noncomposite beams.
MOMENT CAPACITY OF ASYMMETRIC I-SHAPED MEMBERS: In the calculation of the moment capacity of asymmetric I-shaped members in Section F4 of AISC 360-16, the reported moment capacity was erroneous when Iyc/Iy was greater than 0.23 (the program always used Rpc = 1.0 even when a larger value was permitted).
Effect: The program conservatively used a Rpc = 1.0 in the determination of the moment capacity.
BUILT-UP BOX SHAPES: The reported capacities of built-up box sections with slender elements designed according to AISC 360-05/10 Section F7 were incorrect.
Effect: Built-up box sections with slender elements designed according to AISC 360-05/10 reported incorrect capacities and consequently an incorrect interaction ratio when the design was governed by the limit states of Flange and Web Local Buckling.
SINGLY SYMMETRIC I-SECTIONS AND CHANNELS: For singly symmetric I-Sections and Channels with unequal flanges designed according to AISC 360-05/10, the reported bending capacity was conservative if Flange Local Buckling governed the design and the smaller of the unequal flanges was the compression flange.
Effect: When Flange Local Buckling of AISC 360-05 /10 governed the design of singly symmetric I-Sections and Channels with unequal flanges, the reported bending capacity of the governing section was conservative.
DEFLECTION LIMIT – SHORED COMPOSITE BEAM: The Dead Load deflection limit for shored composite beams listed in the Gravity Beam Design report was incorrect.
Effect: The design of shored composite beams was correctly performed but the report listed an incorrect Dead Load deflection limit. Report error only.
DEFLECTION LIMIT – NEGATIVE TOTAL DEFLECTION: The Negative Total deflection limit for the cantilever deflection of composite beams listed in the Gravity Beam Design report was incorrect.
Effect: Composite beams with cantilevers were correctly designed but the report listed incorrect limits for the Negative Total Deflection for the cantilevers.
EXPORT TO RAM SBEAM: On some machines, the export to RAM SBeam stopped working, an Error message was given: "This feature requires RAM SBeam Version 4.0 or Higher to be installed".
Effect: While the standalone version of RAM SBeam continued to work, the user could not export from Steel Beam to RAM SBeam.
Note: RAM SBeam v7.0 must be installed to complete this fix.
CAN/CSA S16 WWF SECTIONS: The table of steel shapes for Canada, RAMCAN.TAB, includes welded wide-flange (WWF) shapes. Due to a flawed symmetry test in the program, these WWF sections may have erroneously been determined to be asymmetric sections, and subsequently designed using the moment capacity equations applicable to asymmetric I-shapes.
Effect: The moment capacities of WWF shapes, which are symmetric, may have been erroneously (and conservatively) calculated using the requirements for asymmetric sections.
RAMUK COLUMN TABLE: Some Trial Group headers were missing from the RAMUK.COL table.
Effect: Some sizes were in the wrong trial group, potentially resulting in columns from different groups being designed in the same column stack. For example, the UB305x127 sizes were included with the UB305x102 sizes, and the UB254x146 sizes were included with the UB254x102 sizes. Note that these are Beam sections, so any problem would only occur if the Beam sizes are being used for Columns, and note that the designs were correct, but the size selections may have resulted in adjacent columns in the column stack that didn’t have similar flange widths.
EUROCODE BASEPLATE DESIGN: Some baseplates designed according to Eurocode could not be optimized.
Effect: While optimizing baseplates designed according to Eurocode, some columns baseplates could not be optimized due to an incorrect test of plate bending stresses to capacity. Baseplates that would have otherwise passed designs were listed as failing.
IS800 SLENDER SECTIONS: Messages for slender column sections per IS800 were not correctly displayed in the View/Update dialog box and the detailed Gravity Column Design report.
Effect: Columns were correctly designed but messaging for slender columns encountered during design were not reported and users were unable to determine the nature of design failure. The View Update dialog box and detailed reports should have reported the column as slender.
DOUBLY SYMMETRIC I-SECTION - TENSION ONLY LOADS: For doubly symmetric I-Sections subject only to tension loads and designed according to AISC 360, the interaction section of the design report showed an incorrect value of Cb.
Effect: Report error only. The designs of doubly symmetric I-Sections under tension loading were correctly performed using the correct Cb, but the report listed an incorrect value of Cb.
BS 8110 REQUIRED REINFORCEMENT: In View/Update and on the Concrete Beam Design report for BS 8110 the value of AsReq was listed as 0.0 for beam in frozen beam lines.
Effect: AsReq not reported.
COMBINATION MISSING IN TEXT FILE: The text for the Controlling Load Combination for the Transvers Reinforcement was missing when the Concrete Column Design report was output to a Text File.
Effect: Report error only, Controlling Load Combination text was missing from the text file.
TEXT FILE FORMATTING: When outputting to Text (.csv), the headings on the Concrete Column Design Summary report were missing some commas.
Effect: When the file was read into Excel the headings didn’t align in the columns with the values.
MINIMUM HORIZONTAL WALL REINFORCING*: The minimum reinforcement of walls was calculated based on the parameters of vertical section cuts for horizontal reinforcing and of horizontal section cuts for vertical reinforcement, so if there was no horizontal section cut the minimum vertical reinforcement was not checked, or if there was no vertical section cut the minimum horizontal reinforcement was not checked.
Effect: When section cuts were only in a single direction, the program only checked the minimum reinforcement for the direction perpendicular to the section cut, ignoring the reinforcement check in the other direction. Note: An approximate calculation based on the wall height and unit length is now performed when walls have section cuts in only one direction. However, when a wall might have different vertical reinforcement along its length, the user should create at least one horizontal section cut.
ORDINARY STRUCTURAL WALLS: ACI 318-14 Section 22.214.171.124(a) (and analogous clause in ACI 318-11) apply to Special structural walls. However, an incorrect warning "Max Vert Bar Spacing per 126.96.36.199(a) at Reinforcing Zone is exceeded" was given when manual reinforcement was assigned on an Ordinary concrete wall and the c limit is exceeded.
Effect: A message applicable only to Special structural walls may have been given even if the wall was an Ordinary structural wall.
SHEAR WALLS WITHOUT SPECIAL BOUNDARY ELEMENTS*: ACI 318-14 Section 188.8.131.52(a) (and analogous clause in ACI 318-11) requires transverse reinforcement for boundaries not governed by 184.108.40.206 when the longitudinal reinforcement ratio exceeds 400/fy. However, no investigation of this transverse reinforcement requirement was performed, which may have led to the under-design of the boundaries of walls subject to these criteria.
Effect: Potentially insufficient transverse reinforcement when the requirements of ACI 318-14 Section 220.127.116.11(a) were applicable.
BOUNDARY ELEMENTS ASSIGNED AS HINGES: Models with merged load cases could not successfully design boundary elements if the section cut had been assigned to be a Hinge (which invokes the Code requirements pertaining to plastic hinge formation, for example the ACI 318 Chapter 18 special boundary element checks). This message was erroneously given in View/Update: "Boundary element extents have not been evaluated for the selected Section Cut".
Effect: Only when there were merged load cases, no wall design could be obtained.
Frame - Analysis
TORSIONAL IRREGULARITY IN DRIFT REPORT*: If the two drift values used in the calculation of Max/Min or Max/Ave in the Torsional Irregularity section of the Drift report were both negative, the values listed for Max/Min and Max/Ave may not have been correct.
Effect: Incorrect Torsional Irregularity values reported. Note that this is rare, it only occurs if the load case applies the forces in the negative direction.
TORSIONAL IRREGULARITY IN DRIFT REPORT*: If the two drift values used in the calculation of Max/Min or Max/Ave in the Torsional Irregularity section of the Drift report were of opposite sign, the values listed for Max/Min and Max/Ave may not have been correct.
Effect: Incorrect Torsional Irregularity values reported. Note that this is rare, it only occurs if the torsional component of the drift is greater than the translational component.
TORSIONAL IRREGULARITY IN DRIFT REPORT: A value of 0.0 for the minimum drift value used in the calculation of Max/Min or for the average drift value used in the calculation of Max/Ave in the Torsional Irregularity section of the Drift report could have resulted in a divide by zero.
Effect: Likelihood was very small, but there was a potential for program crash or garbage values listed on the report. If those values are very close to 0.0, the program now lists 99.999 for Max/Min or Max/Ave.
YIELD-LINK STIFFNESS*: The AISC Direct Analysis Method requires that a 0.8 factor be applied to all stiffnesses, and a tau_b factor be applied to flexural stiffnesses. These should be applied to the Yield-Link spring, but were not.
Effect: This stiffness reduction does not need to be applied when investigating drift, so the drift values were correct, but it does need to be applied when investigating strength, so the design forces may have been less than they should have been (likely small impact, since the reduction was correctly applied to the beams and columns).
WIND AND SEISMIC LOAD CASES CORRUPTED: If a Story was deleted in the Story Data command, and then that Story was added again with a new set of data, the wind and seismic load case data may have become corrupted, causing the program to crash. The same problem could occur if a diaphragm was deleted and then added again in a layout type.
Effect: Program crash.
MOMENT ON WALL DUE TO ECCENTRIC BEAM REACTION*: If a Wall Eccentricity has been assigned to a wall in the Modeler, and a beam frames into the wall, the program applies to the wall both a vertical reaction and an eccentric moment due to that reaction acting the assigned distance from the centerline of wall. The reaction was applied at the correct location (at the node where the beam framed in), but it erroneously applied the moment to the wall end nodes rather than at the node where the beam framed in.
Effect: Moments due to eccentric beam reactions on walls were applied in the wrong locations.
USER-DEFINED WIND LOADS ON SEMIRIGID DIAPHRAGM*: The program distributes user-defined wind loads along diaphragm edges. During the process of this distribution, to validate the correctness of the procedure used by the program the program verifies that the sum of distributed loads is equal to the total user-defined load, and it verifies that the moments created by the distributed loads is equal to moment due to user-defined load (usually calculated at mid-length of edges). Occasionally for very complicated slab edge configurations the values may vary; if the sum of the distributed loads or moments does not equal those from the user-defined values, the program reports the difference as unbalanced load (or moment). This was all being done correctly, except that when such an unbalanced load or moment was found for a diaphragm, the program failed to apply the calculated loads to that diaphragm.
Effect: Some user-defined wind loads assigned to semirigid diaphragms may not have been applied.
INCORRECT DEFLECTED SHAPE FOR SERVICE OR STRENGTH COMBINATIONS*: In Load Combination mode, if the model included Strength or Service combinations, the program incorrectly displayed the deflected shape of the combination of the analyzed load case results rather than the deflected shape of that analyzed load combination (note that the program directly analyzes Strength and Service combinations).
Effect: Incorrect deflected shape was displayed for Strength and Service combinations.
ABORTED ANALYSIS WITH TILT-UP WALLS: The program erroneously displayed a “zero-length element found” error message and aborted the analysis if all of the following conditions existed: 1) there was a tilt-up wall with a gap joint, 2) a lateral beam framed into the gap joint, and 3) the option "Include Rigid Link at Fixed Beam-to-Wall Locations" was selected.
Effect: The error was displayed and the analysis aborted.
STORY SHEAR AND WALL GROUP REPORTS ERRORS*: If the model included a tilt-up walls with gaps and the tilt-up wall had an opening at its base next to the gap, the program reported incorrect shear values in the Building Story Shear, Frame Story Shear, and Wall Group Forces reports; the reports missed shear from the tilt-up wall.
Effect: Report error. Incorrect shear values were reported in the reports indicated, for the conditions indicated.
STRESS AND INTERNAL FORCE CONTOUR DISPLAY: If the model was analyzed and then subsequently the mesh criteria was changed and the model remeshed, the display of the Stresses and Internal Forces was incorrect unless RAM Frame was closed and then reopened.
Effect: Incorrect display of stresses and forces.
WALL AND DIAPHRAGM STRESSES AND INTERNAL FORCES: Wall and diaphragm stresses and internal forces displayed on screen or printed in the Stress and Internal Force Summary reports were not correct if the model was in SI or Metrics units.
Effect: Incorrect stress/internal force values were displayed or reported for walls and diaphragms in SI or Metric units.
Frame – Drift
JOINT PARTICIPATION IN DRIFT MODULE: If the model included an assigned panel-zone element at a joint, the effects of shear in the joint were double-counted – by including both that of the assigned panel zoned element and that of the traditional joint – in the reported joint participation value in the Drift module.
Effect: Reported joint displacement participation value was greater than it should have been.
Frame – Shear Wall Forces
WALL SECTION FORCES REPORT: The Wall Section Forces report in the Shear Wall Forces module had two errors: In the CRITERIA section of the report the Scale Factor listed for P-delta was always that associated with the Mass option even if the Use Gravity Loads option had been selected, and the reported diaphragm type was always listed as Rigid even when other diaphragm types were used at various levels.
Effect: Report error only.
Frame – Steel Standard Provisions
AISC 360 COMBINED FLEXURE AND TENSION: The reported equation reference for members designed according to AISC 360 subjected to flexure and tension was incorrect.
Effect: Members subjected to flexure and tension and checked using AISC 360 were correctly designed according to provisions of section H1.2, but the reported controlling design incorrectly referenced H1.3. This was report related only.
HYBRID YIELD-LINK JOINT*: The Standard Provisions Joint View Update dialog crashed if a joint was selected that had a Yield-Link connection on one side and a non Yield-Link connection on the other side.
Effect: All joints assigned Yield-Link connections were correctly designed, but an investigation of joints with a Yield-Link connection on one side and a non Yield-Link connection on the other side resulted in a crash in the Standard Provisions Joint View/Update dialog.
BRBF FY-MAX AND FY-MIN: Design of Buckling Restrained Braces assigned Fy-max and Fy-min using SI Units was incorrect.
Effect: Due to a units conversion error, Buckling Restrained Braces assigned Fy-max and Fy-min using SI Units were not designed correctly.
Frame – Steel Seismic Provisions
SCBF AND BRBF COLUMN CAPACITY LOAD DESIGN*: For SCBF frames, columns are required by AISC 341 Sections F2.3(a) and (b) to be designed for loads based on the expected strength of the braces, and for BRBF frames, columns are required by AISC 341 Section F4.3 to be designed for loads based on the adjusted strength of the braces. The program performs this analysis and design. However, in the case of frames in which the columns were oriented with their weak axis in the plane of the frame, those capacity forces from braces that framed down from the level above onto the top right side of the column were not applied.
Effect: For columns rotated as described above, those columns were designed for loads that did not include the capacity load from braces that framed down from the level above to the top right side of the column. Loads from braces that framed down from the level above onto the top left side of the column were correctly applied; loads from braces that framed up to the top of the column from below on either side were correctly applied. This error did not occur if the columns were oriented with their strong axis in the plane of the frame.
STRONG COLUMN – WEAK BEAM EXCEPTION*: AISC 341-16 Section E3.4a requires that SMF columns be stronger than the beams, with an Exception given in Section E3.4a(a) and (b). The program determines if an SMF column is a top story column as specified in Section E3.4a(a)(1) when determining if the Exception is applicable. Erroneously, if the option to Apply all one and two story exceptions was selected in the Criteria – Codes command in Steel - Seismic Provisions mode, all columns may have been granted the Exception, not just those at the top story. That option was not intended to be applied to this Exception.
Effect: The Strong Column – Weak Beam check may not have been performed if the option to Apply all one and two story exceptions was selected.
WUF-W AND OTHER CONNECTIONS: If the option to Use AISC 358 was selected for Moment Frames in the Criteria – Codes command and if the beam had not been assigned to be an RBS (i.e., the connection was a WUF-W or some other generic moment connection type), the seismic design moment at the face of the column was erroneously determined using AISC 358 Section 5.8 Eq. (5.8-6) for RBS beams, resulting in the beam failing the test against the moment capacity.
Effect: Beam connections designated as WUF-W or OTHER that would have otherwise passed designs were erroneously failed.
BS 8110 AND CP65 SHEAR STRENGTH*: The enhanced shear strength allowed by BS 8110 Section 18.104.22.168 was erroneously applied to the shear strength of spread footings.
Effect: The spread footing may have had inadequate depth if shear controlled.
REACTIONS FROM STUB CANTILEVERS MISSING*: When accessing reactions on columns at a story using the CGravityLoads_DAMan::GetStoryGravityReactOnCol method in RAM DataAccess, reactions from stub cantilevers were not included.
Effect: Incorrect column reaction was exported when the column supported a stub cantilever.
Bentley CONNECT Licensing – Subscription Entitlement Service
Bentley CONNECT Licensing has now been renamed Subscription Entitlement Service. CONNECT Licensing was first implemented in the RAM Structural in v16.00. This licensing monitors current usage and, if an attempt is made to use a program or module for which there is no available license, the program will give a warning. Important information is given in the v16.00 Release Notes.
More information on CONNECT Licensing / Subscription Entitlement Service can be found at:
User and Administrator instructions can be found here:
and a short guide has been posted here:
CONNECT License / Subscription Entitlement Service requires all users to sign-in in order to use any Bentley programs. If you do not already have a Bentley ID, go to http://www.bentley.com/profile and select the Sign Up Now link.
NOTE: If you haven’t done so already, before using any version 16.0 or newer, the person at your company that has the role of Administrator for the Bentley products must configure the license so that it gives the overuse warnings. Otherwise, by default no warnings will be given. Instructions can be found here:
Review all of the information, but in particular, note the section on Entitlement Management, and in that document note the instructions on License Alerting. Generally, for License Alerting you will want to Enable Alerts, and then input the number of licenses that you own for the particular product.
CONNECT Licensing / Subscription Entitlement Service is revolutionary. It warns you against incidental overuse of the program, but when you have a temporary heavier work load it allows you to intentionally use more licenses than you own, at a fraction of the cost of purchasing an additional copy. Subscription Entitlement Service gives you the information you need to control usage and make those decisions.
In addition to providing the overuse warning described above, Bentley CONNECT offers several benefits. Listed here are two key features:
When you sign in to your Bentley account you now have easy access to CONNECT Center. This personalized portal gives you access to Usage reports, site configuration information, downloads, and Learning information on webinars, seminars and events, and includes a transcript listing the Bentley courses that you have completed. Your personal portal also lists your recent projects with a portal into analytics on that project. CONNECT Center can be accessed by selecting the Bentley Cloud Services – CONNECT Center command or by selecting the Sign In command in the upper right corner of the RAM Manager screen.
All of Bentley’s CONNECT Edition programs, including RAM Structural System, allow models to be associated with a project. Multiple models, from any of the Bentley products, can be associated with a given project. This simplifies the process of keeping track of work done for a project, and will enable analytics to be performed and reported for the project.
A ProjectWise Projects portal enables you and your project teams to see project details required to evaluate team activity and understand project performance.
When a model is Saved in this version the program will ask for a Project to which the file is to be associated. Projects can be registered (created) from your Personal Portal, or from the Assign Project dialog by selecting the + Register Project command.
Product Licensing FAQ – RAM Structural System: Blocking Use of Modules and Programs
VERSIONS 17.00 AND NEWER
The RAM Structural System contains links to three related Bentley products, RAM SBeam, RAM Concept and RAM Connection, providing design interoperability. Each of those programs have their own licenses. It is possible for a client to have licenses for some programs but not for the others. Because of the ease with which these programs can be invoked, a method of restricting the use of each has been incorporated in order to prevent unwanted or inadvertent usage by an unsuspecting user from being logged against the licenses that the company actually owns.
Note that if you have installed CONNECT versions of these programs and have correctly set up the warnings on entitlements you will receive a warning if overuse is about to occur; you may find it advantageous to rely on these warnings rather than blocking their use entirely as described below.
RAM SBeam is invoked using the Process – Export to SBeam command in the Steel Beam module. RAM Concept and RAM Connection are invoked using the tool bar buttons on the left of the RAM Manager screen:
or by using the Model or Design menu items:
If RAM SBeam, RAM Concept, or RAM Connection are not installed, they will not be available to be selected.
In RAM Manager, the Tools – Manage License Restrictions command opens the following dialog:
This provides a mechanism for the user to prevent a program from being inadvertently executed. When the RAM Structural System is first installed all of these options are selected. It is important therefore to execute this command and deselect any links for which the user wants to restrict access.
To prevent a program link from being executed, deselect that item.
If a link is deselected here and that link is subsequently invoked, the following dialog appears:
If Allow is selected the program will open, and usage will be logged. If Cancel is selected the program will not open and no usage will be logged. Settings opens the previous command, allowing the user to modify the selections of the allowed programs.
Note that there is also a link to Bentley’s ProjectWise for project management. It is available through the File – ProjectWise command. Its use is not restricted through the Tools – Manage License Restrictions command described above. It should only be invoked if you have a license for it.
VERSIONS 14.07 Through 16.01
The RAM Structural System is composed of several modules, each of which has their own license. The program also contains links to two related Bentley products, RAM Concept and RAM Connection, providing design interoperability, as well as a link to Bentley’s ProjectWise for project management. Each of those programs also have their own licenses. It is possible to have several licenses of one or more modules, and few or no licenses of other modules. Because of the ease with which these various modules and programs can be invoked, a method of restricting the use of each has been incorporated in order to prevent unwanted or inadvertent usage by an unsuspecting user from being logged against the licenses that the company actually owns.
These modules are invoked using the tool bar buttons on the left of the RAM Manager screen:
If RAM Concept or RAM Connection are not installed, they will not be available to be selected.
There is no license associated with RAM Manager, so no usage data is logged against it, but usage data is logged against each of the other modules as soon as they are invoked.
This provides a mechanism for the user to prevent a module from being inadvertently executed. When the program is first installed all of these options are selected. It is important therefore to execute this command and deselect any modules or links for which the user wants to restrict access.
To prevent a module or program link from being executed, deselect that item.
If a module is deselected here and that module or link is subsequently invoked, the following dialog appears:
If Allow is selected the module will open, and usage will be logged. If Cancel is selected the module will not open and no usage will be logged. Settings opens the previous command, allowing the user to modify the selections of the allowed modules.
VERSIONS 14.06 AND EARLIER
Versions prior to V14.07 lacked the ability to manage these license restrictions, restrictions could only be achieved by deleting the module from the installation Prog directory. If you are using an earlier version and want to prevent use of a module, delete the file(s) listed here for the module to be prevented:
RAMConcAnalysis.dll, RAMConcreteBeam.dll, RAMConcreteColumn.dll, RAMConcreteShearWall.dll
RAM Frame Analysis:
Beginning with RAM Structural System V17.00 the licensing has changed; the licenses on the individual modules (e.g., RAM Steel, RAM Concrete, RAM Frame, RAM Foundation) have been consolidated into a single package, RAM Structural System. See the RAM Structural System V17.00 Release Notes on Bentley Communities for a more detailed description and important instructions:
For more complete and updated information, go to the RAM Structural System V17.0 License Consolidation wiki on Bentley Communities:
Datacheck Enhancements – Technology Preview
In order to include the new Datacheck checks, you must modify the ramis.ini file (located in the C:\ProgramData\Bentley\Engineering\RAM Structural System directory) to include the following section:
DatacheckOffset = 1
DatacheckOffsetLowerTol = 0.00000001
DatacheckOffsetUpperTol = 1.0
DatacheckHorizVert = 1
DatacheckHorizVertLowerTol = 0.000000000001
DatacheckHorizVertUpperTol = 0.001
DatacheckOffMember = 1
DatacheckOffMemberLowerTol = 0.0001
DatacheckOffMemberUpperTol = 0.1
DatacheckOffMemberLowerAngleTol = 0.1
DatacheckOffMemberUpperAngleTol = 4.0
This section should be added after the [Tip] section. Use Notepad or other simple text editor (not Word, for example) when editing the ramis.ini file.
These variables associated with the checks are defined below.
Members slightly offset from grids. If a member is very nearly but not exactly attached to a nearby grid intersection, it is often an indication that the member is not attached to the intended snap point, but rather to a nearby point. This is generally not a problem, such conditions are allowed, but when the other framing around this member use the correct grid point, in very rare cases this condition can cause gravity loads to be incorrectly distributed or cause the analysis to terminate.
DatacheckOffset: Set equal to 1 to include this check, set equal to 0 to exclude this check.
DatacheckOffsetLowerTol: Distance (inches), the lower tolerance on the check.
DatacheckOffsetUpperTol: Distance (inches), the upper tolerance on the check.
Members very nearly horizontal or vertical. If a beam or wall is very nearly but not exactly horizontal in plan, it is often an indication that the member end is not attached to the intended snap point, but rather to a nearby point. Same for a member that is very nearly but not exactly vertical in plan. This is generally not a problem, such conditions are allowed, and in some cases intended, but when the other framing around this member use the correct snap point, in very rare cases this condition can cause gravity loads to be incorrectly distributed or cause the analysis to terminate.
DatacheckHorizVert: Set equal to 1 to include this check, set equal to 0 to exclude this check.
DatacheckHorizVertLowerTol: Difference (in.) between the coordinate at each end of beam or wall, the lower tolerance on the check.
DatacheckHorizVertUpperTol: Difference (in.) between the coordinate at each end of beam or wall, the upper tolerance on the check.
Deck or Load polygon edges misaligned with member. If the edge of a Deck or Surface Load polygon very nearly but not exactly coincides with a beam or wall, it is often an indication that the polygon vertex was not attached to the intended snap point, but rather to a nearby snap point. Alternatively, it may be an indication that the beam or wall was not modeled exactly as intended. Deck polygon edges should coincide precisely with beams and walls; surface load polygons are not required to coincide with beams and walls, but this condition, in which the edge very slightly diverges from the beam or wall, should be avoided. The program generally deals with this problem correctly, but in rare cases this condition can cause composite properties to be incorrectly assigned to a beam, cause gravity loads to be incorrectly distributed, or cause the analysis to terminate.
DatacheckOffMember: Set equal to 1 to include this check, set equal to 0 to exclude this check.
DatacheckOffMemberLowerTol: Distance (in.) between the polygon edge and the member; the lower tolerance on the check.
DatacheckOffMemberUpperTol: Distance (in.) between the polygon edge and the member; the upper tolerance on the check.
DatacheckOffMemberLowerAngleTol: When the polygon edge and the member are skewed with respect to each other, the angle between the two; the lower tolerance on the check.
DatacheckOffMemberUpperAngleTol: When the polygon edge and the member are skewed with respect to each other, the angle between the two; the upper tolerance on the check.
The program analysis can handle some degree of imperfection; it is not necessary that member and polygon coordinates are exactly precise, but very small offsets generally indicate unintended modeling conditions. There appears to be a range of distances and angles that sometimes are problematic for the analysis to perform correctly. The goal of this Technology Preview is to determine the proper range of values necessary to catch the critical conditions without producing an excessive amount of unnecessary warnings. For the lower tolerance value, the goal is to find the largest acceptable value; if the value is too small it will result in unnecessary warnings, if the value is too large it will miss conditions that might be a problem. For the upper tolerance value, the goal is to find the smallest acceptable value; if the value is too large it will result in unnecessary warnings, if the value is too small it will miss conditions that might be a problem.
If you find that the Datacheck is giving numerous unnecessary warnings, try tightening the tolerances; if it is missing problem conditions, try loosening the tolerances. Please report to us your experience with this feature so that we can finalize it and make it a regular part of the Datacheck.
Check this site periodically, the recommended values may change as testing and usage indicate better values.